Mountain Men and Life in the Rocky

Subject Guide


Mountain West

Malachite’s Big Hole

Battle of Pierre’s Hole

Account of Zenas Leonard

The following description of the Battle of Pierre’s Hole is from the Narrative of the Adventures of Zenas Leonard:  Written by Himself. Leonard was a member of Gant and Blackwell’s party that had come west the year before. After enduring incredible hardships, some of Gant and Blackwell’s men came to be loosely associated with Fitzpatrick and accompanied him to the Rendezvous of 1832.  Leonard has provided us with the most detailed and apparently complete description of the action that day:

August 25th. Every thing necessary for our expedition being ready this morning, we started in a southern direction, but did not go far until we encamped for the night - thinking that if we had neglected any thing which we would stand in need of, we would thus discover it.  The next morning finding all things in order, we continued travelling down what is called Pieres hole, or valley.  This valley is situated on the river of the same name, and is from 70 to 80 miles in length, with a high mountain on the east and west - each so high that it is impossible to pass over them, and is from eight to ten miles wide. The river runs immediately through the centre, with a beautiful grove of timber along either bank; from this timber to the mountain, a distance of four or five miles, there is nothing but a smooth plain.  This meadow or prairie is so perfectly level that a person may look up or down as far as the eye will reach without meeting any thing to obstruct the sight, until the earth and sky appear to meet.  After travelling a few miles this morning, some of the men, in taking a view of the country before us, discovered something like people upon horses, who appeared to be coming towards us.  After continuing in the same direction for some time we came in view with the naked eye, when we halted.  They advanced towards us displaying a British flag.  This we could not comprehend; but on coming closer discovered them to be hostile Indians. We immediately despatched a messenger back to the rendezvous for reinforcements and prepared ourselves for defence.  The Indians commenced building a fort in the timber on the bank of the river; but at the time we were not aware of what they were doing.  After waiting here a few hours we were reinforced by 200 whites, 200 Flatheads, and 300 Nez Perces Indians. The Indians with the British flag, on seeing such a number of people galloping down the plain at full speed, immediately retreated within their fort, whither they were hotly pursued.  The friendly indians soon discovered them to belong to the Blackfeet tribe, who are decidedly the most numerous and warlike tribe in the mountains, and for this reason are not disposed to have any friendly intercourse with any other nation of an inferior number, unless they are good  warriors and well armed with guns, &c.  We thought we could rush right on them and drive them out of the brush into the plain and have a decisive battle at once.  We advanced with all possible speed, and a full determination of success, until we discovered their fort by receiving a most destructive fire from the enclosure.  This throwed our ranks into complete confusion, & we all retreated into the plain, with the loss of 5 whites, 8 Flatheads and 10 Nez Perces Indians killed, besides a large number of whites and Indians wounded.  The formation of their fort astonished all hands.  We had been within a few hundred yards of them all day and did not discover that they were building it.  It was large enough to contain 500 warriors; and built strong enough to resist almost any attempt we might make to force it. After dressing the wounded, and having reconnoitered their fort, our forces were divided into several detachments, and sent in different directions with the intention of surrounding the fort and making them prisoners.  This was done under the superintendance of Fitzpatrick, who acted as commander-in-chief.  In a case of this kind any man not evincing the greatest degree of courage, and every symptom of bravery, is treated as a coward; and the person who advances first, furthest and fastest, and makes the greatest display of animal courage, soon rises in the estimation of his companions. Accordingly with the hope of gaining a little glory while an opportunity offered, though not for any electioneering purpose, as a politician in the States would do - I started into the brush, in company with two acquaintances (Smith and Kean) and two Indians.  We made a circuitous route and came towards the fort from a direction which we thought we would be least expected.  We advanced closer and closer, crawling upon our hands and knees, with the intention of giving them a select shot; and when within about forty yards of their breast work, one of our Indians was shot dead. At this we all lay still for some time, but Smith's foot happening to shake the weeds as he was laying on his belly, was shot through.  I advanced a little further, but finding the balls to pass too quick and close, concluded to retreat.  When I turned, I found that my companions had deserted me.  In passing by, Smith asked me to carry him out, which met my approbation precisely, for I was glad to get out of this unpleasant situation under any pretext - provided my reputation for courage would not be questioned. After getting him on my back, still crawling on my hands and knees, I came across Kean, lying near where the first Indian fell, who was also mortally wounded and died soon after.  I carried Smith to a place of safety and then returned to the siege. A continual fire was kept up, doing more or less execution on both sides until late in the afternoon, when we advanced to close quarters, having nothing but the thickness of their breast work between us, and having them completely surrounded on all sides to prevent any escaping.  This position we maintained until sun-set, in the meantime having made preparations to set fire to the fort, which was built principally of old dry logs, as soon as night would set in, and stationed men at the point where we thought they would be most likely to make the first break, for the purpose of taking them on the wing, in their flight.  Having made all these preparations, which were to put an end to all further molestation on the part of the Blackfeet, our whole scheme and contemplated victory was frustrated by a most ingenious and well executed device of the enemy.  A few minutes before the torch was to be applied, our captives commenced the most tremendous yells and shouts of triumph, and menaces of defiance, which seemed to move heaven and earth.  Quick as thought a report spread through all quarters, that the plain was covered with Blackfeet Indians coming to reinforce the besieged.  So complete was the consternation in our ranks, created by this stratagem, that in five minutes afterwards, there was not a single white man, Flathead or Nez Perces Indian within a hundred yards of the fort.  Every man thought only of his own security, and run for life without ever looking round, which would at once have convinced him of his folly.  In a short time it was ascertained that it was only a stratagem, and our men began to collect together where our baggage was.  I never shall forget the scene here exhibited.  The rage of some was unbounded, and approached to madness.  For my own part, although I felt much regret at the result after so much toil and danger, yet I could not but give the savages credit for the skill they displayed in preserving their lives, at the very moment when desperation, as we thought, had seized the mind of each of them.  

By the time we were made sensible of the full extent of our needless alarm, it had began to get dark; and on ascertaining the extent of the injury which we received, (having lost 32 killed, principally Indians,) it was determined not to again attempt to surround the fort, which was a sore disappointment to some of the men who were keen for chastising the Indians for their trick. We then took up our march for the rendezvous; but on starting one of our party of 15 men, who had first started out the day before, could not be found.  Search was made, and he was found in the brush, severely wounded. After carrying him on a litter a few miles he died and was buried in the Indian style: - which is by digging a hole in the ground, wrapping a blanket or skin round the body, placing it in the hole, and covering it with poles and earth.  This is the manner of interring the dead in this country both by the Indians and whites, except in the winter season on account of the ground being frozen, when the Indians are in the habit of wrapping their dead in buffaloe robes, and laying them on poles from one tree to another, on which poles the corpse is tied with cords. The next morning we raised another war party and went back to the battle ground, but no Indians could be found. They must have left the fort in great haste for we found 42 head of horses, together with Fitzpatrick's which they had taken on the mountain, two warriors and one squaw lying dead inside of their fort, besides a large quantity of their baggage, such as furs, skins, &c. There must have been a great number of them, from the holes they had dug in the ground around their dead horses and the edges of the fort, say from three to four hundred.  I learned afterwards that the Nez Perces Indians shortly after found seven more dead Blackfeet, in some brush close by, where they had been secreted to save their scalps, which is the principal object with these Indians, in order to have their women dance.  In the afternoon we returned to the rendezvous and presented Mr. Fitzpatrick with his long-lost and highly valued horse, which seemed to compensate for all the sufferings and hardships which he had encountered.”  

Account of Nathaniel Wyeth
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